. An Anthology, 125–133. “On Putnam’s Proof That We Are Not Brains-in-a-Vat,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 92: 67–94. Oxford: Oxford University Press. “Mental Events,” Philosophical Studies 39: 325–345. Introduction Skepticism has a long history in philosophy. Local skepticism involves being skeptical about particular areas of knowledge (e.g. Descartes set a standard for knowledge that, he argued, beliefs based on the senses cannot meet. This argument takes the shape of a transcendental argument, which is reminiscent of Hilary Putnam’s infamous argument against the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, but is, as is argued, superior to it in certain respects. This is parallel to the way microbiology points out that the organelles that exist in our cytoplasm, which make individual cells work, like mitochondria and Golgi bodies, originate as separate prokaryotic species with very divergent agendas, and are enslaved in a way by the nucleus as a resident overlord.