Voigt, O., Wülfing, E. and Wörheide, G. (2012) Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea). ), Sponges of the New Caledonian Lagoon. They occur mostly in shallow waters; only a few species are known from the deep sea (for an overview see, e.g. Publication Details. Demosponges: They behave like sponges without spicules such as bath sponge … (Ed. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. These spicules do not have hollow axial canals. Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of those are Calcareans. Sponges are cultivated for commercial purposes. The peculiarities of the skeleton is the mam basis of classification and the sponges are grouped into four classes accordingly. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. According to Haeckel, the gastrula stage can be found in the development of all animals, and represents the recapitulation of the ancestral metazoan, the Gastraea, a diploblastic animal with a ciliated gut ( … All sponges in this class are strictly marine, and, while they are distributed worldwide, most are found in shallow tropical waters. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. These organisms are sessile creatures that can reproduce by both asexual and sexual methods. Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. An element which seems to have been too little regarded in the physiology of sponges is the permanent tension of their walls. 2. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/animal/calcareous-sponge, University of California Museum of Paleontology - Calcarea. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, NY (USA). The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges, with a reference list of all the described species, systematically arranged. Leucosolenia: It is a simplest colonial sponge consisting of number of horizontal and vertical tubes. 693 pp. Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of Sponges. Burton, Maurice, 1898-1992 British Museum (Natural History). Memebers of the group Calcarea are the only sponges that possess spicules composed of calcium carbonate. Aragonite was sought but not proven, although the presence of quartz complicates its detection. Examples: Leucosolenia, Sycon, (Scypha) Grantia. Sycon cf. Calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea) include about 675 accepted extant species (Van Soest et al., 2011), which are exclusively marine. (2009a) Type. Porifera (sponges), class: Calcarea . Sycon cf. Rapp et al. Calcareous Sponges are one of the three branches of the Phylum Porifera. Manuel M(1), Borchiellini C, Alivon E, Le Parco Y, Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N. Proc. "The Skeleton and Classification of Calcareous Sponges." Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of calcinea and calcaronea, high level of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry. Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges: monophyly of calcinea and calcaronea, high level of morphological homoplasy, and the primitive nature of axial symmetry. Burton, M., 1963. compra a revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. PLoS ONE 7, e33417. * The contours of the surfaces, particularly where they rise over Most are small, seldom exceeding 15 cm (6 inches). The fossil record of unambiguously identified Calcarea is relatively poor and fragmented. SpongeMaps is a tool for online collaboration among sponge biologists for sponge identification, sponge taxonomy, focused on the Phylum Porifera (2009a) Typically, the Calcarea are very small, measuring about 7-10 cm (3-4 inches) in height. Dendy, A. and H. Row, 1913. Calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea) include about 675 accepted extant species (Van Soest et al., 2011), which are exclusively marine. Porifera (sponges), class: Calcarea . Calcarea (L. Calcis- lime): The skeleton is of calcareous spicules. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Like nearly all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. British Museum (Natural History), London. Dendy, A. and Row, R.W.H. The Calcarea first appears at the base of the Lower Cambrian and has persisted until the present. The peculiarities of the skeleton is the mam basis of classification and the sponges are grouped into four classes accordingly. Calcareous: These sponges have their spicules made of calcium carbonate and do not have sponge fibers.They are usually small and pale in color. Communicated by ADAM SEDGWICK, F.R.S. These usually have three points, but some species have two or four pointed spicules. Most calcareous sponges in the fossil record were classified as either stromatoporoids, chaetetids, archaeocyaths, inozoans, pharetronids, or sphinctozoans. By G. P. BIDDER. Classification. Omissions? Recent molecular analysis suggests the class Calcarea should be designated as a phylum, in particular the first to have diverged in the Animalia. Together, the classes Calcarea and Hexactinellida make up about 10 to 20 percent of the known species of sponges; the remaining 80 to 90 percent are placed in the class Demospongiae.…, …archaeocyathids most closely resemble the calcareous sponges. The term is derived from the name given by Ernst Haeckel to a stage in the development of calcareous sponges, the gastrula, a ciliated egg-shaped larva with a mouth and a gut (Haeckel, 1872). In : Lévi, C. (Ed. Calcareous sponges have spicules made of magnesium calcite (MgCO3), or may lack spicules altogether. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, NY (USA). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Class 1. By G. P. BIDDER. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. An element which seems to have been too little regarded in the physiology of sponges is the permanent tension of their walls. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate. Zool. p. 104. It is most common on relatively shallow depths, down to 200 meters. Class 1. with a catalogue of the specimens in the british museum, natural history. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Publication info Department of Zoology. Calcarean sponges first appeared during the Cambrian, and their diversity was greatest during the Cretaceous period. Verwer et al. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 3, 704 – 813 . Class 1. Taxonomyof Calcareous Sponges This iconoclastic work, A Revision of the Classification of the Calcareous Sponges [British Museum (Natural History), London, 1963. A revision of the classification of the calcareous sponges. ISBN 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 (2 volumes) pp. Aragonite was sought but not proven, although the presence of quartz complicates its detection. 94–96. Distribution: Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Class Calcarea includes sponges that are small in size and less colorful than other sponge classes. Class 1. Molecular Phylogenetic Evaluation of Classification and Scenarios of Character Evolution in Calcareous Sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea) By Oliver Voigt (90080), Eilika … It is now established that many of these forms actually belong to several groups of demosponges because of the possession of primary siliceous spicules, and only fe… The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. Calcareous sponges vary from radially symmetrical vase-shaped body types to colonies made up of a meshwork of thin tubes, or irregular massive forms. Corrections? Calcarea or Calcispongiae: a. Calcareous sponges; skeleton solely of calcareous spicules which may be one, three or four-rayed … Pp. (ORSTOM, Collection Faune et Flore tropicales. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. A class of marine sponges of the phylum Porifera which have spicules of calcium carbonate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Calcareous_sponge&oldid=983869299, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 18:50. Voigt, O., Wülfing, E. and Wörheide, G. (2012) Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea). "The Skeleton and Classification of Calcareous Sponges." Calcareous sponges take a wide range of shapes, including irregular massive forms, vase-shaped bodies on a stalk or meshworks of thin tubes. In : Lévi, C. Cytological and embryological features are used as diagnostic characters in both general classification and species identification of the Demospongiae and Calcarea. Received May 6,-Read May 26, 1898. Publication info gelatinosum Photo by Clay Bryce, image copyright WA Museum Typically pale in colour and with a tendency to be quite small in size (less than 30cm), this class of sponges lacks spongin and their skeletons are composed entirely of calcium carbonate. The Calcarea first appears at the base of the Lower Cambrian and has persisted until the present. Manuel M(1), Borchiellini C, Alivon E, Le Parco Y, Vacelet J, Boury-Esnault N. Department of Zoology. Examples: Leucosolenia, Sycon, (Scypha) Grantia. 693 pp. * The contours of the surfaces, particularly where they rise over Taxonomy of Calcareous Sponges. Illus. ISBN 0-306-47260-0. xix, 1-1101, 1103-1706 (2 volumes) pp. Of the 15,000 or so species of Porifera that exist, only 400 of those are calcareans. Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures).

calcareous sponge classification

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